Peer to peer (P2P) electronic cash is simply described as online money sent from one person to another without the need for a trusted third-party. As described in the original Bitcoin whitepaper by Satoshi Nakamoto, P2P cash makes use of digital signatures as part of the solution, but the main benefits are lost if a trusted third party is still required to prevent fraud. This makes P2P cash a trustless and safe way to transact without the need of intermediaries.




第二次矛盾,当萨利姆和贾马尔被诱拐到了马曼所开的“孤儿院”时,萨利姆凭借自己的勇敢和聪慧,成为了孩子王,也同时被马曼看上,选择为他自己的爪牙。在萨利姆把一群流浪儿管理得服服帖帖的时候,他与广大的孤儿产生了不可避免的矛盾,而与贾马尔的矛盾也是必然的。编剧在设计他们之间的矛盾时,使用了拉提卡,把她放到了矛盾的冲突点和制高点上,使拉提卡再一次成为贯穿主线的人物。萨利姆想要把婴儿交给拉提卡带,说:“拉提卡,今天你负责带他”,拉提卡说:“我不带”,这时候,萨利姆的权威受到了质疑,作为一个小头头,他一定要让拉提卡服从,于是他说:“抱着吧,这是为你好,有小孩可以要双份。”冲突产生了,萨利姆的命令和拉提卡的意愿产生了矛盾,这时出面的,就是既喜欢拉提卡,又是萨利姆弟弟的贾马尔,他在这两人中, 始终保持着微妙的关系。贾马尔说:“她说了不想带。”当时的贾马尔,决对不是萨利姆的对手,而且萨利姆也必须以牺牲弟弟的利益,才能在孩子中树威,所以,他斩钉截铁地说:“你少说话,贾马尔,接着,不然我把他扔了。”这样,迫使拉提卡接受了萨利姆的建议,再一次的争锋中,萨利姆的名利观战胜了兄弟情。


Bitcoin is the world’s first virtual digital currency underpinned by a completely decentralized blockchain technology also known as the Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT). Bitcoin was first created in 2009 by an anonymous identity of Satoshi Nakamoto. Bitcoin allows for peer-to-peer transactions and is completely free of any third-party involvement like financial institutions or central banks. The Bitcoin’s blockchain network maintains a history of all the transactions made and facilitates instant funds transfer with minimal transaction fees required to cover the cost of network operation. The total supply of Bitcoin is fixed at 21 million coins and its smallest fractional unit is called as Satoshi. Each Satoshi is a hundred millionth of a Bitcoin which means 100,000,000 Santoshi = 1 BTC. Bitcoins are generated by a process known as ‘mining’ which involves solving of complex mathematical algorithms. The miners involved in the mining process look after the Bitcoin network security and validate each transactions taking place on the network. Bitcoin can be exchanged with other digital currencies or fiat currencies. Bitcoin is used as a means of payment by over 100,000 vendors and merchants.


If you have the required hardware, you can mine bitcoin even if you are not a miner. There are different ways one can mine bitcoin such as cloud mining, mining pool, etc. For cloud mining, all you need to do is to connect to the datacenter and start mining. The good thing about this is that you can mine from anywhere and you don’t need a physical hardware to mine.

cryptocurrency 1031交换

Rising fees on the Bitcoin network contributed to a push by some in the community to create a hard fork to increase the blocksize.[11] This push came to a head in July 2017 when some members of the bitcoin community including Roger Ver felt that adopting BIP 91 without increasing the block-size limit favored people who wanted to treat bitcoin as a digital investment rather than as a transactional currency.[12][13] This push by some to increase the block size met a resistance. Since its inception up to July 2017, Bitcoin users had maintained a common set of rules for the cryptocurrency.[12] Eventually, a group of bitcoin activists,[14] investors, entrepreneurs, developers[12] and largely China-based miners were unhappy with Bitcoin's proposed SegWit improvement plans meant to increase capacity and pushed forward alternative plans for a split which created Bitcoin Cash.[15] The proposed split included a plan to increase the number of transactions its ledger can process by increasing the block size limit to eight megabytes.[12][13]


At the time of the software upgrade (also known as a fork) anyone owning bitcoin was also in possession of the same number of Bitcoin Cash units.[19][16] The technical difference between Bitcoin Cash and Bitcoin is that Bitcoin Cash allows larger blocks in its blockchain than Bitcoin, which in theory allows it to process more transactions per second.[20] Bitcoin Cash was the first of the Bitcoin forks, in which software-development teams modified the original Bitcoin computer code and released coins with “Bitcoin" in their names, with "the goal of creating money out of thin air."[21] In relation to Bitcoin it is characterized variously as a spin-off,[5] a strand,[22] a product of a hard fork,[23] an offshoot,[24] a clone,[15] a second version[14] or an altcoin. On 1 August 2017 Bitcoin Cash began trading at about $240, while bitcoin traded at about $2,700.[16]
The would-be hard fork with an expanded block size limit was described by hardware manufacturer Bitmain in June 2017 as a "contingency plan" should the bitcoin community decide to fork; the first implementation of the software was proposed under the name Bitcoin ABC at a conference that month. In July 2017, the Bitcoin Cash name was proposed by mining pool ViaBTC. The change, called a fork, took effect on 1 August 2017. As a result, the bitcoin ledger called the blockchain and the cryptocurrency split in two.[16]


There are two factions of bitcoin supporters, that support large blocks or small blocks.[20] The Bitcoin Cash faction favors the use of its currency as a medium of exchange for commerce while the Bitcoin-supporting faction view bitcoin's primary use as that of a store of value.[20] Some Bitcoin supporters like to call Bitcoin Cash “Bcash,” “Btrash,” or simply a scam, while Bitcoin Cash advocates insist that their implementation is the pure form of Bitcoin.[20] 


EDA adjustments caused instabilities in mining difficulty of the Bitcoin Cash system, resulting in Bitcoin Cash being thousands of blocks ahead of Bitcoin. To address the problem with stability, a change of the Bitcoin Cash DAA was implemented and the EDA cancelled. The change took effect on 13 November 2017. After the change, the Bitcoin Cash DAA adjusts the mining difficulty after each block. To calculate the difficulty for a new block, the Bitcoin Cash DAA uses a moving window of last 144 blocks.[36]

5 cryptocurrency 2018

With the largest variety of markets and the biggest value - having reached a peak of 18 billion USD - Bitcoin is here to stay. As with any new invention, there can be improvements or flaws in the initial model however the community and a team of dedicated developers are pushing to overcome any obstacle they come across. It is also the most traded cryptocurrency and one of the main entry points for all the other cryptocurrencies. The price is as unstable as always and it can go up or down by 10%-20% in a single day.


Bitcoin Cash was launched in August 2017, as a direct response to small block sizes on the Bitcoin code. 1MB block sizes were not meeting the demand of the growing community, so a group of dissatisfied crypto enthusiasts decided to create a ‘hard fork’ of the Bitcoin blockchain, with an increased 8MB block size. No one person currently takes credit for the token’s creation; rather it is attributed to a de-centralized group of developers.