MD5还广泛用于操作系统的登陆认证上,如Unix、各类BSD系统登录密码、数字签名等诸多方。如在UNIX系统中用户的密码是以MD5(或其它类似的算法)经Hash运算后存储在文件系统中。当用户登录的时候,系统把用户输入的密码进行MD5 Hash运算,然后再去和保存在文件系统中的MD5值进行比较,进而确定输入的密码是否正确。通过这样的步骤,系统在并不知道用户密码的明码的情况下就可以确定用户登录系统的合法性。这可以避免用户的密码被具有系统管理员权限的用户知道。MD5将任意长度的“字节串”映射为一个128bit的大整数,并且是通过该128bit反推原始字符串是困难的,换句话说就是,即使你看到源程序和算法描述,也无法将一个MD5的值变换回原始的字符串,从数学原理上说,是因为原始的字符串有无穷多个,这有点象不存在反函数的数学函数。所以,要遇到了md5密码的问题,比较好的办法是:你可以用这个系统中的md5()函数重新设一个密码,如admin,把生成的一串密码的Hash值覆盖原来的Hash值就行了。  

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Bitcoin (BTC) is the world’s first decentralized digital currency and payment system and is by far the most known and valuable cryptocurrency. It was created in 2009 by an anonymous person or group called Satoshi Nakamoto. Bitcoin enables transactions to be sent peer-to-peer without passing through a central authority. The transactions are recorded on a decentralized public ledger called the blockchain and each payment acquires a small transaction fee to cover the cost of the network. The total supply of Bitcoin is 21 million and it’s smallest unit of bitcoin is called a Satoshi, it’s a hundred millionth of a bitcoin – 0.00000001 BTC. The creation of Bitcoin’s is happening through mining. Miners have the task to validate transactions and keep the network secure. Their efforts are rewarded by new minted Bitcoins and transactions fees. Bitcoin can be exchanged for fiat or other cryptocurrencies, products and services. Over 100,000 merchants and vendors accepts bitcoin as a payment.

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Derivatives exchange giant CME Group expects its upcoming bitcoin options to be popular with Asian cryptocurrency traders and miners. The exchange is hopeful that the options contracts will be as popular as bitcoin futures, which drive most demand (over 50% of trading volume) from Asian and European traders, Tim McCourt, global head of equity index […] The post CME expects big demand for its upcoming bitcoin options from Asian traders and miners appeared first on The Block.
With the largest variety of markets and the biggest value - having reached a peak of 18 billion USD - Bitcoin is here to stay. As with any new invention, there can be improvements or flaws in the initial model however the community and a team of dedicated developers are pushing to overcome any obstacle they come across. It is also the most traded cryptocurrency and one of the main entry points for all the other cryptocurrencies. The price is as unstable as always and it can go up or down by 10%-20% in a single day.

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When people talk about the price of Bitcoin, they are referring to the current price at which Bitcoin is changing hands. Since Bitcoin is a purely speculative asset, this price is determined by how little sellers are willing to charge and how much buyers are willing to pay. Even then, the price of Bitcoin can vary across exchanges like Coinbase and Binance or currencies because of market inefficiencies

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EDA adjustments caused instabilities in mining difficulty of the Bitcoin Cash system, resulting in Bitcoin Cash being thousands of blocks ahead of Bitcoin. To address the problem with stability, a change of the Bitcoin Cash DAA was implemented and the EDA cancelled. The change took effect on 13 November 2017. After the change, the Bitcoin Cash DAA adjusts the mining difficulty after each block. To calculate the difficulty for a new block, the Bitcoin Cash DAA uses a moving window of last 144 blocks.[36]

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Peer to peer (P2P) electronic cash is simply described as online money sent from one person to another without the need for a trusted third-party. As described in the original Bitcoin whitepaper by Satoshi Nakamoto, P2P cash makes use of digital signatures as part of the solution, but the main benefits are lost if a trusted third party is still required to prevent fraud. This makes P2P cash a trustless and safe way to transact without the need of intermediaries.

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Bitcoin Cash was launched in August 2017, as a direct response to small block sizes on the Bitcoin code. 1MB block sizes were not meeting the demand of the growing community, so a group of dissatisfied crypto enthusiasts decided to create a ‘hard fork’ of the Bitcoin blockchain, with an increased 8MB block size. No one person currently takes credit for the token’s creation; rather it is attributed to a de-centralized group of developers.

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EDA adjustments caused instabilities in mining difficulty of the Bitcoin Cash system, resulting in Bitcoin Cash being thousands of blocks ahead of Bitcoin. To address the problem with stability, a change of the Bitcoin Cash DAA was implemented and the EDA cancelled. The change took effect on 13 November 2017. After the change, the Bitcoin Cash DAA adjusts the mining difficulty after each block. To calculate the difficulty for a new block, the Bitcoin Cash DAA uses a moving window of last 144 blocks.[36]

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  而 Jamal 是个不折不扣的理想主义者。他善良而执着,对 Latika 一直不肯放弃。 Salim 在火车上数钱的时候, Jamal 脑子里想的都是 Latika ,兄弟俩的人生观一目了然。演员 Dev Patel 现实中也是只有 18 岁,有人说 Jamal 看起来太单薄,跳起舞来都是长手长脚的。但是这有什么关系呢?外型虽然薄弱,意志却无比坚强。 开头被拷打时,胖警察报告审了他一夜,除了名字什么都没问出来——“ He’s a tough guy.” 他的长官说“ What the hell can a slumdog possibly know” 的时候,背后被电晕的 Jamal 吐了一口血:“ The answers.” 这个镜头,我印象非常深刻。 18 岁的 Jamal Malik 因为这种坚强而显得格外性感。如果说这部电影是个童话,那也一定是因为 Jamal 这种近似不可能的执着和坚持,而不是男女主人公的离奇爱情故事。选不出“ Truth Alone Triumphs.” 的 Jamal ,他的人生故事却是这句话的完美诠释。 如果 Salim 是那个社会的代表型人物, Jamal 就是印度人民的精神象征,这就解释了为什么 Jamal 的天真善良和理想主义是理所当然的,也解释了为什么 Jamal 赢大奖后人们都为他兴奋欢呼。

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